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Technical Fresh Guru

What is a computer? | Basic Computer Skills


The basic computer system and its devices will be discussed
in this post on basic computer skills. For people who are beginners in the
realm of computers, this post will be very helpful.

We’ll discuss and cover the following topics. Visit “BasicComputer Course Lesson 1” on our YouTube Channel.

  1. Introduction to computer system
  2. Uses of computers
  3. Characteristics of computer

Introduction to Computer System

The computer is revolutionizing the methods in which we
communicate, operate a business, and learn about various academic
disciplines. Nowadays, knowledge is more widely available because of advances
in computer technology.

What is a computer?

The “Computer” is derived from the Latin word “Compute”,
which means to calculate. So a computer is normally considered to be a
calculating device that can perform arithmetic and logical operations at a very
fast speed.


A computer is an electronic machine that can accept data,
process it, and give results, after that processing.

Other definitions of Computer:

A computer is an electronic machine that solved our problems.


A computer is an electronic machine that converts
data into information.


Data are basic values
or facts. A computer uses many different types of data stored in digital formats,
such as text, numbers, and multimedia.


When information is
entered into and stored in a computer, it is generally referred to as data.

Part of computer 

A Computer has four parts.

  • CPU   
  • Monitor 
  • Keyboard 
  • Mouse

CPU (Central Processing Unit) 

A box that contains different electronic components of the computer used to process data. There are two cases of the system unit, the first tower case, and the second desktop case. It includes the motherboard, processor (CPU), RAM, hard drive, module cards, ports, power supply, and connectors. 

The Central Processing Unit is abbreviated as CPU. It is sometimes referred to as a microprocessor or processor. It is simply the brain of the computer. It carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical control, and input/output (I/O) operations. 

System Unit Organization Chart

Parts of the Systems Unit 

There are many parts of the system unit, which are the following:

  • Motherboard 
  • Microprocessor 
  • RAM 
  • ROM
  • Cache Memory 
  • Storage Devices


It is also called the main board, or system board. It is the most important component of a unit system. If it doesn’t work properly, your system is a useless machine. Each component of the system unit connects directly to the motherboard. 


It is also known as CPU (Central Processing Unit) or processor. It is simply the brain of the computer. 

It carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical control, and input/output (I/O) operations.


RAM stands for Random Access Memory. It is the type of main or primary memory. It is a temporary storage area to hold the data and instructions that the Central Processing Unit (CPU) needs. 

Each program is loaded into memory to run. This allows the CPU direct access to the program. This is of volatile nature. DRAM, SRAM & MRAM are its three types. 


ROM stands for Read Only Memory. It is a non-volatile memory because ROM retains its contents even when the computer is turned off. Instructions on a ROM can neither be selected nor changed. 

It prepares a computer for use by telling how to access the hard disk, and find and load the operating system. ROM has three types named PROM, EPROM, and EEPROM. It is also called BIOS (Basic Input Output System). 

Cache Memory

This relatively new type of memory is expensive, fast and small memory than RAM. It resides within or near the CPU. It holds recently or frequently used instructions. It is used to enhance the speed of the computer by reducing the transfer time of data with the CPU.

Storage Devices 

These are non-volatile in nature. These devices are used to store data, instructions, and information permanently. Important examples of storage are hard disk, optical disk, USB Flash Drive, Floppy disk, and, Zip disk. For more detail on Storage Devices review our post “Computer Hardware and Software“. 

Uses of Computer 

The computer is playing a very
important role in every field of life. Computers are everywhere such as at
home, and at school. In daily life, a large number of activities are dependent on
computers. The main fields where the computer is playing a very important role are:


A government runs the country
by making policies and providing citizens with up-to-date information. The
computers used in all government departments have their own websites. The
computers are used in all government offices to perform various activities. Government agencies use computers as part of their daily routine. 


Education is the process of
developing knowledge through instructions. The instruction is received from
people such as parents, teachers, etc., and from printed material such as books
journals, etc. Today, the modern technology to get knowledge is by using


In the agriculture field also, the computer is playing a very important role. Agriculture scientists use a computer for analyzing agricultural data. The students of agriculture also
use a computer to get the latest information about agriculture on the internet. The
farmers also use computers to get information about crops and calculate bills
and costs per acre as well as to get information about crops’ market prices.  


In industry, computers are
used to control the manufacturing system and the continuous running of the
machinery. Computers also help in monitoring temperature, and pressure, checking the
quality and accuracy, and measurement needed in the manufacturing process.


In the field of publishing, the computer is playing a very important role such as publishing books, magazines, newspapers, etc. Publishers use computer and word processors and
graphics software to design pages for books or magazines. Many writers and
publishers use the internet to collect information that is used for compiling a new
book or magazine. Some websites allow you to download an entire book, called an
electronic book (e-book). The journalists also use notebook computers and
digital cameras to capture and record news. 


The computer has also played a
very important role in the entertainment of humans. The computer has become needed
by humans for entertainment at their home. For example, to play video games at
home, different game software is available to play games. Similarly, the software
is available to see movies and enjoy music. Today movie files and famous
songs are mostly available on CDs & DVDs or on the web at a very low cost.
You can listen to music while you work on the computer.   


E-commerce, (Electronic
Commerce), e-trade, or e-business is a financial business transaction conducted
electronically between business partners over a computer network (such as on the internet). With e-commerce, transactions can occur instantaneously and
globally. This saves time for participants or both ends. The users can buy,
sell, and exchange products or services via a computer network. Today, many
mobile computers can also access the internet using wireless links.     


One of the most popular uses
of e-commerce is electronic banking. Electronic banking is also known as
cyber-banking. It includes various banking activities conducted from home, a
business, or on the road instead of a physical bank location. All over the
world, about 99 percent of banks are online.  

Diagnosis of Diseases

The computer is also used in
hospitals for diagnoses. For example, laboratory tests on blood and tissue
chemistry have become dependent on computer analysis. The physicians and
dentists also use the computer-aided learning (CAL) program. Many websites also
provide up-to-date medical, fitness, etc. information. These websites also maintain
databases about various problems and their solutions. There are also medical
chat rooms on the internet.                          


The computer is also playing a very
important role in traveling by car or airplane to arrive easily and safely at
your destination. Today many vehicles manufactured use special electronic
equipment in the car that controls various activities of the car. These cars
have a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver that reports your vehicle
location. These cars also have “Onboard Navigation Systems” that have the
following features.

  • Track the vehicle if it is
  • Provide emergency services
  • Provide directions
  • Provide roadside assistance
  • Perform remote diagnostics if
    a warning light appears on the dashboard
  • To make hotel and restaurant

Today many vehicles also
include options such as screens with e-mail and internet access, printers, fax
capability, etc. Airlines also provide online access. The passengers can connect
their notebook or handheld computer to the web during their flights. Some
airlines also provide web surfing devices to their passenger during their

The computer is also used in cars
to monitor fluid levels, temperatures, electrical systems, etc. It is also used
to monitor air traffic etc.

Mathematical Calculations     

A computer has a speed of
calculating millions of calculations per second. We can perform large
mathematical calculations in a very short time. 

Characteristics of Computer

Nowadays the computer is playing the
main role in everyday life it has become the need of people just like
television, telephone or other electronic devices at home. It solves human
problems very quickly as well as accurately. The important characteristics of a
computer are described below:


The computer is a very high-speed
electronic device. The operations on the data inside the computer are performed
through electronic circuits according to the given instructions. The data and
instructions flow along these circuits at a high speed that is close to the
speed of light. Computers can perform millions of billion operations on data in one second. The computer generates signals during the operations
process, therefore, the speed of a computer is usually measured in Mega Hertz (MHz)
Giga Hertz (GHz).


In addition to being a very fast
computer is also a very accurate device. It gives accurate output results provided
that the correct input data and set of instructions are given to the computer.
It means that output is totally dependent on the given instruction and input
data. If input data is incorrect then the resulting output will be incorrect.
In computer terminology, it is known as garbage-in garbage-out.


A computer has internal storage
(memory) as well as external or secondary storage. In secondary storage, a large
amount of data and programs can be stored for future use. The stored data and
programs are available at any time for processing. Similarly, information
downloaded from the internet can be saved on the storage media.


Efficiency is one of the most
wonderful things about computers. The computer can perform multiple tasks
simultaneously. For example preparation of the result of the examination,
communication on network and storage and retrieval of information, etc.


A computer can automatically
perform operations without interference from the user during the operations. It
controls automatically different devices attached to the computer. It
executes automatically the program instruction one by one.


People often have difficulty repeating their instructions again and again. For example, a lecturer feels
difficulty to repeat some lecture in a classroom again and again. The computer can
repeat actions consistently (again and again) without losing its

  • To run a spell checker (built
    into a word processor) for checking spellings in a document.
  • To play multimedia animations for
    training purposes.
  • To deliver a lecture through a computer in a classroom etc.

A computer will carry out the
activity, in the same way, every time. You can listen to a lecture are perform any
action again and again.


The electronic components in
modern computers have a very low failure rate. The modern computer can perform
very complicated calculations without creating any problems and produces
consistent (reliable) results. In general, computers are very reliable. Many
personal computers have never needed a service call. Communications are also
very reliable and generally available whenever needed. 


We have created this post for the
newbies who are new to the computer field. It is designed to develop basic
computer skills to enhance your knowledge. Also, you can review our post on
Computer Hardware and Software. If there is any kind of lack in this post or if
liked it, please comment to us. Thanks.

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